Continuing fight for women’s rights in Afghanistan
After the fall of the Taliban in 2001, a phase of reconstruction began in Afghanistan that sparked hope for a better future. Afghanistan is still a long way from becoming a stable state, where women can enjoy equal rights and live in safety. Today, after more than 18 years of international military intervention, the picture is a sobering one: After the number of civilian casualties had reached a record high in 2016 with 3,500 killed and 7,920 injured according to a UN survey, this was followed by the sad record of civilians killed in 2018: the UN reported over 3,800 deaths and around 7,190 wounded.
Women’s rights in Afghanistan – violence on the rise
Economic problems, decline in international support and increase in poverty are a lethal development given the already dangerous situation women and girls are facing. The revitalisation of fundamentalist forces and is jeopardising the achievements made in the field of women’s rights.
There are recurrent instances of lynchings or stonings, particularly in families and village communities. Women are poisoned, tortured, oppressed. Laws to prevent these kinds of incidents, such as the Elimination of Violence against Women (EVAW) law do exist. But, in practice, the dominance of traditional justice systems often prevents their consistent application.
Frequent consequences of the violent repression and disenfranchisement of women in Afghanistan include:
psychosomatic illnesses, depression and even suicide. In spite of their difficult and extremely dangerous situations, more and more women are making their voice heard – against injustice and for political representation in their country.
"My husband now treats me with respect, you have done a miracle for me."
Sohra, client of Medica Afghanistan
Eight facts on women’s rights in Afghanistan
- Forced marriages: UN figures report 59 per cent of all marriages as forced. 57 percent of women are younger than 16 at the wedding.
- Everyday violence against women: According to figures from 2013, 87 per cent of all women had experienced at least one form of violence during their lifetime: physical, sexualised, psychological or forced marriage. 62 percent experience multiple forms of violence.
- Imprisonment for „moral crimes“: According to a Human Rights Watch report (2012) half of all imprisoned women and almost all of the imprisoned girls are serving sentences for “moral crimes: they are charged with adultery, although in most cases they are victims of rape or forced prostitution.
- Suicide as the only way out: In hardly any other country in the world do women live more dangerously than in Afghanistan. Beating, rape and humiliation are part of everyday life. Self-immolation is unfortunately a common way to commit suicide in Afghanistan and many Afghan women are driven to this as a last resort to escape overwhelming psychological and physical violence.
- Equal rights usually only on paper: According to the law to combat violence against women (EVAW-Law) on paper women actually have equal rights. However, in practice, judges seldom apply the law. For Afghan women, life outside the family is almost unthinkable.
- High maternal mortality: On average, there are 5.3 pregnancies per woman. 51 percent of births are supervised by midwives or doctors. Afghanistan has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the world – an estimated 460 cases per 100,000 live births. The causes of this maternal mortality include young age, vitamin deficiency and poor medical care during pregnancy. The infant mortality rate is also one of the highest in the world - 68 out of 1000 children die before their fifth birthday.
- Low literacy rate: Only 17 percent of women are literate compared to 45 percent of me.
- Forced Virginity-Tests: So-called “virginity tests” continue to be carried out and ordered by police officers, judges and lawyers, even though the Afghan Penal Code has forbidden forced gynaecological examinations since 2017. These tests form part of the routine when investigating sexualised violence or “moral crimes” such as sexual intercourse outside of marriage.
„I am so glad that you all are there who help women like me.“
Sahar S. *, client of Medica Afghanistan
(* name changed)
(Last updated: 2019)
69.5 percent of the legal cases brought to court by Medica Afghanistan in 2018 had a positive result for the women. Medica Afghanistan represents women clients who have run away from home to escape violence.
In 2018, 40 women who had been subjected to a forced gynaecological examination were represented by Medica Afghanistan in court.
Project region: Kabul, Herat, Mazar-i-Sharif
- Creating safe spaces – empowering women and girls through stress- and trauma-sensitive psychosocial services
- Legal and social protection and empowerment of women and girls in Kabul and Mazar-i-Sharif
- Empowering women and girls through legal, social and psychosocial measures
- Transnational Health Training Programme (THTP-I)
- Strengthening the resilience and sustainability of medica mondiale’s partner organisations
Partner organisation: Medica Afghanistan – Women Support Organisation
Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
Federal Foreign Office (AA)
Anne-Marie Schindler foundation
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC)
Source: annual report 2018
Psychosocial counselling programme:
- In several Kabul, Herat and Mazar-i-Sharif, counsellors from Medica Afghanistan offer counselling for women who are suffering from the mental or physical consequences of sexualised and other forms of violence. Regular conversation groups and individual counselling sessions help them deal with their trauma and find a new lease of life.
- Medica Afghanistan set up consultation rooms at key locations of throughout the Afghan capital Kabul. This makes it easier for as many women as possible to find a protected space near their home where they can come to meet others and benefit from psychosocial support.
- To ensure sustainability, Medica Afghanistan developed a new concept in 2014: under the guidance of former Medica Afghanistan clients, women come together in selfhelp groups where they can discuss their problems and experiences of violence and exchange views on their rights. This in turn strengthens the autonomy of the clients who set up these groups, as they see that they themselves can be agents of change.
Legal assistance project:
- The legal assistance project run by Medica Afghanistan offers general legal advice to women and provides female prisoners with criminal defence in court. The project’s female Afghan lawyers are committed to ensuring a fair trial for the women. Additionally, they also provide legal advice in civil affairs such as divorce and custody cases. Medica Afghanistan’s lawyers and social workers also help to mediate between women and their relatives to mitigate family conflicts. Many women are imprisoned as a result of such conflicts escalating, so this mediation work helps to prevent court cases in advance.
- Mediation rooms in Kabul, Herat and Mazar-e Sharif offer a place for families to receive counselling.
- The central political call of Medica Afghanistan: To enforce the statutory rights of women in everyday life.
- In addition Medica Afghanistan is campaigning against so-called virginity tests, forced gynaecological examinations,. Although this practice is prohibited, police and judiciary continue to order these examinations, which can have a traumatising impact for the women concerned. In 2018 Medica Afghanistan hosted a conference in this regard.
- So Medica Afghanistan is campaigning among politicians and in society at large for the implementation and realisation of equal rights for women in Afghanistan.
- Medica Afghanistan is working together with national and international women’s and human rights organisations to achieve the enforcement of new laws to combat violence against women (EVAW Law). In December 2014 Medica Afghanistan organised a conference concerning this law. The organisation is also working to achieve other aims, such as reforming family law and ending the practices of forced and child marriages.
- In Germany, we are working to ensure that Afghanistan continues to receive public attention and remains on the political agenda.
Training for medical and psychosocial professionals:
- Medica Afghanistan offers training programmes for female professionals who work in medical and psychosocial professions. The objective: to ensure an improved, trauma-sensitive approach to health care for women who suffer from violence.
- Afghan women doctors, nursing staff and midwives learn about trauma and retraumatisation, psychosomatic illnesses and trauma-sensitive methods of examination and treatment. Another important aspect covered during the training is how to avoid overload at work. Participants learn how to preserve their own strength despite intense contact with traumatised patients and how to avoid secondary traumatisation – where the helpers themselves develop trauma symptoms. In addition, Medica Afghanistan offers lectures in the hospitals to raise awareness among male staff of the special issues faced by women.
- To prevent violence against women by law, Medica Afghanistan has set itself the object of informing society and the legal community about the EVAW law and campaigning for genuine acceptance.
- Medica Afghanistan specifically targets forced and child marriages, educating families, judges and the public about their consequences. In September 2009 the organisation risked a particularly proactive measure: working together with the Afghan Ministry of Islamic Affairs, 36 spiritual leaders (mullahs) from in and around Kabul were educated about children’s rights and legal marriages. A second such workshop was then held in Herat in May 2010.
- To raise awareness of violence against women and its consequences Medica Afghanistan produces radio programmes with interviews and reports on the topic of “Psychological health”.
- Medica Afghanistan carries out trainings for police staff on the topics of human rights and violence against women. Results are visible with police referring more cases of domestic violence to the legal advice team at Medica Afghanistan. Also prison staff gets informed about regulations governing the treatment of prisoners under binding international law and their awareness of the special situation regarding imprisoned women is raised.
- Since 2018 Medica Afghanistan offers feminist family counselling. In individual and group sessions, participants explore gender roles and the destructive consequences of violence. The training closes with an agreement on achievable goals to prevent future violence.
(Status of 2018)